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Architecture tests with ArchUnit, pt. 1: Reasons tests with ArchUnit, pt. 1: Reasons<p>Good architecture is essential for a codebase to enjoy a long and happy life (the other crucial ingredient is running automated unit tests, but that’s a different blog post). Nowadays there are many sensible options, including our favorite for mobile apps, Clean arch, but no matter which one you choose, you’ll need to document and enforce it somehow.</p><p>The former is traditionally accomplished by some form of oral history passed from one developer to another (sometimes augmented by blurry photos of frantically scribbled whiteboard diagrams), while the latter is sporadically checked during code reviews (if there’s time—which there isn’t—and you remember all the rules yourself—which you don’t).</p><p>Or maybe you even have a set of gradually outdated wiki pages and fancy UML models created in some expensive enterprise tool. Or complicated but incomplete rules written for rather arcane static analysis frameworks. Or any other form of checks and docs, which are usually hard to change, detached from the actual code and difficult and rather expensive to maintain.</p><p>But fret not! There is a new architectural sheriff in this JVM town of ours and he’s going to take care of all of this—say hello to your new best friend, <a href="">ArchUnit</a>! </p><h2>What’s all the fuss about?</h2><p>ArchUnit is a library to, well, unit test your architecture. There are other tools to <em>check</em> your architecture, but the “unit testing” part of ArchUnit is actually its killer feature.</p><p>While “normal” unit tests should describe behavior (not structure!) of the system under test, ArchUnit cleverly leverages JVM and existing unit test frameworks to let you document <em>and</em> check your architecture in a form of runnable unit tests, executable in your current unit test environment (because you already have a strong suite of unit tests, right?). Why exactly is this such a welcome improvement?</p><p>Well, it all boils down to the fundamental benefits of all unit tests: Because unit tests are code, they are a precise, up-to-date, unambiguous, executable specification of the system. Docs can be outdated and misleading, but unit tests either compile or don’t; they either pass or not. Imagine opening a project you don’t know anything about, running its unit tests and seeing this:</p> <img alt="ArchUnit test results in Android Studio" src="/Blog/PublishingImages/Articles/arch-unit-1-01.png" data-themekey="#" /> <p>Suddenly the whole onboarding situation looks much brighter, doesn’t it?</p><h2>Show me the code</h2><p>Enough talk, let’s get down to business! If your test framework of choice is JUnit 4, put this in your <span class="pre-inline">build.gradle.kts</span>:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">dependencies { testImplementation("com.tngtech.archunit:archunit-junit4:0.14.1") } </code></pre><p>There are artifacts for other test frameworks as well, just refer to the <a href="">docs</a>. Be careful not to use older versions as this version contains important fixes for multi-module projects containing Android libraries in a CI environment.</p><p>Now we can write our first architecture test:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@RunWith(ArchUnitRunner::class) @AnalyzeClasses(packages = ["com.example.myapp"]) internal class UiLayerTest { @ArchTest val `view model subclasses should have correct name` = classes().that().areAssignableTo( .should().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("ViewModel") } </code></pre><p>And just like that, you now have one small naming convention documented and automatically verified across your whole project. The API does a great job at being self-explanatory and we’ll get into the details later, but let’s quickly recap what we have here:</p><p><span class="pre-inline">@AnalyzeClasses</span> annotation is one of the ways to specify what to check. Here, we simply want to test all code in the <span class="pre-inline">com.example.myapp</span> package and its subpackages. ArchUnit imports and checks Java bytecode (not source files), which is why it works with Kotlin (or any other JVM language), although it’s itself a pure Java library—another example of Kotlin’s stellar interoperability with Java. <em>Where</em> ArchUnit actually gets this bytecode is a slightly more complicated question, but that’s not important right now.</p><p>Anyway, we annotate our test cases with <span class="pre-inline">@ArchTest</span> and for the shortest syntax, we use properties instead of functions. As with other unit tests, it’s a good idea to leverage Kotlin’s escaped property names for more readable test outputs.</p><p>And then finally for the main course: ArchUnit has a comprehensive, very expressive and really rather beautiful fluent API for specifying the predicates and their expected outcomes. It’s not Java reflection and being a pure Java library, ArchUnit doesn’t have constructs for Kotlin-exclusive language elements, but it’s still more than powerful enough.</p><h2>Test the tests</h2><p>Now run the test. Most projects probably stick to this naming convention, so the result bar in your favorite IDE might be green already. But wait! How do we know that the tests actually work?</p><p>Although they may appear a bit strange, ArchUnit tests are still unit tests and we should treat them as such. That means we should follow the famous red-green-refactor cycle, albeit modified, because you absolutely need to see the test fail and it must fail for the correct reason. This is the only time when you actually test your tests!</p><p>What does this mean for ArchUnit tests? The difference from normal TDD for our specific test case is that we cannot simply write the test first and watch it fail, because if there are no view models in the project yet, the test will pass. So we need to cheat a little and break the architecture on purpose, manually, by creating a temporary class violating the naming convention in the main source set. Then we run the test, watch it fail, delete the class and watch the test go green (the refactoring part isn’t really applicable here).</p><p>This looks like extra work and granted, it can be a bit tedious, but the red part of the cycle simply cannot be skipped, ever. There is a myriad of logical and technical errors that can result in the test being wrong or not executed at all and this is your only chance to catch them. There’s nothing worse than a dead lump of code giving you a false sense of security.</p><p>And there’s one more thing to borrow from TDD playbook: Perhaps you are doing a code review or approving pull request and you discover some construction violating a rule that you haven’t thought of before. What to do with that? As with all new bugs, don’t rush fixing the bug! The first thing you should do is write a test exposing the bug (the red part of the cycle)—that means writing an ArchUnit rule which will fail with the offending code. Only after that, make the test green. This way, you’ll slowly make your test suite more precise, with the added bonus that future regressions will be prevented as well.</p><h2>Be careful what you test for</h2><p>We’ll take a look at all ArchUnit’s fluent API constructs in a future post, but there’s an important detail we need to discuss before that.</p><p>Basically all simple ArchUnit rules follow the form <span class="pre-inline">(no) LANGUAGE_ELEMENT that PREDICATE should (not) CONDITION</span>. From a mathematical point of view, these rules are <em>implications</em>.</p><p>An implication looks like this:</p> <img alt="Venn diagram of an implication" src="/Blog/PublishingImages/Articles/arch-unit-1-02.png" data-themekey="#" /> <p>For our example test above (and many other tests that you’ll write), it means that the test will pass for <em>all</em> these variants:</p><ul><li>class is not assignable to <span class="pre-inline">ViewModel::class</span> and does not have a simple name ending with <span class="pre-inline">ViewModel</span> (that’s OK) </li><li>class is assignable to <span class="pre-inline">ViewModel::class</span> and has a simple name ending with <span class="pre-inline">ViewModel</span> (that’s also OK) </li><li>class is not assignable to <span class="pre-inline">ViewModel::class</span> and has a simple name ending with <span class="pre-inline">ViewModel</span> (the criss-crossed part of the diagram; we don’t really want to allow this) </li></ul><p>It seems that what we really want is an equivalence:</p> <img alt="Venn diagram of an equivalence" src="/Blog/PublishingImages/Articles/arch-unit-1-03.png" data-themekey="#" /> <p>Although ArchUnit doesn’t (yet?) have API elements to specify equivalences, they are fairly simple to create: Because A ↔ B is the same as (A → B) AND (B → A), we just need to add another test to our suite:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `classes named ViewModel should have correct super class` = classes().that().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("ViewModel") .should().beAssignableTo( </code></pre><p>This way, the offending case which the first test didn’t catch (class name ends with <span class="pre-inline">ViewModel</span>, but it is not assignable to <span class="pre-inline"></span>) is prevented.</p><h2>Best thing since sliced bread</h2><p>I don’t want to use the word game-changer, but I just did. Since we started adding ArchUnit tests to our projects, we have seen significant improvements in developer productivity and the health of our codebases. Compared to similar solutions, ArchUnit’s simple integration, ease of use and expressive powers are unmatched.</p><p>We’ve only scratched the surface of what’s possible, so <a href="/Blog/Pages/arch-unit-2.aspx">next time</a>, we’ll dive into ArchUnit APIs to discover some nifty architecture testing goodness! </p> #architecture;#jvm;#tdd;#android
Architecture tests with ArchUnit, pt. 2: Rules tests with ArchUnit, pt. 2: Rules<p>In the <a href="/Blog/Pages/arch-unit-1.aspx">first part</a> of this series, we’ve had a glimpse of an architecture test written with the almighty ArchUnit, but of course there’s much more! Although ArchUnit’s API looks like Java Reflection API, it also contains powerful constructs to describe dependencies between code or predefined rules for testing popular architecture styles. Let’s see what we’ve got to play with!</p><h2>First things first</h2><p>ArchUnit rules follow the pattern <span class="pre-inline">(no) LANGUAGE_ELEMENT that PREDICATE should (not) CONDITION</span>. So what language elements can we use?</p><p>All tests begin with static methods in <span class="pre-inline">ArchRuleDefinition</span> class (but please import the class to make the rules more readable).</p><p>We can start with <span class="pre-inline">classes</span> or <span class="pre-inline">constructors</span> which are pretty self-explanatory. We also have <span class="pre-inline">theClass</span> if you want to be brief and specific. If possible, always use the overload that takes <span class="pre-inline">Class<*></span> argument instead of the overload that takes String to make your tests resistant to future refactorings; the same goes for other methods with these argument choices.</p><p>Next, we have <span class="pre-inline">fields</span>, <span class="pre-inline">methods</span> and <span class="pre-inline">members</span>. When testing Kotlin code, be extra careful with <span class="pre-inline">fields</span> because Kotlin properties are <em>not</em> Java fields. Remember that ArchUnit checks compiled bytecode and every Kotlin property is actually compiled to getter method by prepending the <span class="pre-inline">get</span> prefix, setter method by prepending the <span class="pre-inline">set</span> prefix (only for <span class="pre-inline">var</span> properties) and private field with the same name as the property name, but <em>only for properties with backing fields</em>. When testing Kotlin properties, it may sometimes be safer to test their generated getters or setters. Anyway, these subtle details show the importance of watching your test fail.</p><p>We also have a slightly mysterious <span class="pre-inline">codeUnits</span> method—it means simply anything that can access other code (including methods, constructors, initializer blocks, static field assignments etc.).</p><p>All methods mentioned above also have their negated variants. Now what can we do with all this?</p><h2>Packages, packages everywhere</h2><p>Consistent packaging is one of the most important things to get right in the project. We strongly prefer packaging by features first, then by layers. This concept sometimes goes by the name of “screaming architecture”: For example, when you open an Android project and you see top level packages such as <span class="pre-inline">map</span>, <span class="pre-inline">plannedtrips</span>, <span class="pre-inline">routeplanning</span>, <span class="pre-inline">speedlimits</span>, <span class="pre-inline">tolls</span>, <span class="pre-inline">vehicles</span> or <span class="pre-inline">voiceguidance</span>, you’ll get a pretty good idea about what the app is really about. But if instead you are looking at packages such as <span class="pre-inline">activities</span>, <span class="pre-inline">fragments</span>, <span class="pre-inline">services</span>, <span class="pre-inline">di</span>, <span class="pre-inline">data</span>, <span class="pre-inline">apis</span>, etc., it won’t tell you much about the application (every Android app will contain at least some of those things).</p><p>ArchUnit can enforce correct package structure, prevent deadly cyclic dependencies and much more. Let’s see a few examples (the actual packages mentioned are not important, use what is convenient for your project):</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `every class should reside in one of the specified packages` = classes().should().resideInAnyPackage( "..di", "..ui", "..presentation", "..domain", "" ) </code></pre><p>The two dots mean “any number of packages including zero”, so this test says that every class must exist in one of these predefined leaf packages.</p><p>This test however doesn’t say anything about the package structure <em>above</em> the leaves, so if you want to be more strict, you can write this, for example: </p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `every class should reside in one of the specified packages` = classes().should().resideInAnyPackage( "com.example.myapp.*.di", "com.example.myapp.*.ui", "com.example.myapp.*.presentation", "com.example.myapp.*.domain", "com.example.myapp.*.data" ) </code></pre><p>The star matches any sequence of characters excluding the dot (for our sample packaging, in its place there would be a feature name), but you can also use <span class="pre-inline">**</span> which matches any sequence of characters <em>including</em> the dot. Together with the two dot notation, you can express pretty much any package structure conceivable (see the Javadoc for <span class="pre-inline">PackageMatcher</span> class).</p><h2>Building the walls</h2><p>One popular architectural style is to divide the code into layers with different levels. We can define layer level simply as the code’s distance from inputs/outputs—so things like UI, DB or REST clients are pretty low-level, whereas business logic and models are on the opposite side and the application logic sits somewhere in the middle.</p><p>In this case, it’s a good idea to isolate higher-level layers from external dependencies such as platform SDK or other invasive frameworks and libraries, since higher levels should be more stable and independent of the implementation details in lower layers. ArchUnit can help us with that:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `higher-level classes should not depend on the framework` = noClasses().that().resideInAnyPackage("..presentation..", "..domain..") .should().dependOnClassesThat().resideInAnyPackage( "android..", "androidx..", "", "" /* and more */ ) </code></pre><p>Only a few lines and those pesky imports have no way of creeping in your pristine (and now even fairly platform-independent!) code.</p><h2>Piece(s) of cake</h2><p>Speaking of layers, we should not only handle their dependencies on the 3rd party code, but of course also the direct dependencies between them. Although we can use the constructs mentioned above, ArchUnit has another trick up to its sleeve when it comes to layered architectures.</p><p>Suppose we have defined these layers and their <em>code</em> dependencies:</p> <img alt="Example layer structure" src="/Blog/PublishingImages/Articles/arch-unit-2-01.png" data-themekey="#" /> <p>This is just an example, but let’s say that the domain layer is the most high-level, so it must not depend on anything else; presentation and data layers can depend on stuff from domain, UI can see view models in presentation layer (but view models must not know anything about UI) and DI sees all to be able to inject anything (and ideally, no other layer should see DI layer, because classes should not know anything about how they are injected; alas this is not always technically possible).</p><p>Whatever your actual layers are, the most important thing is that all dependencies go in one direction only, from lower level layers to higher level layers (this is the basic idea of Clean architecture). ArchUnit can encode these rules in one succinct test:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `layers should have correct dependencies between them` = layeredArchitecture().withOptionalLayers(true) .layer(DOMAIN).definedBy("..domain") .layer(PRESENTATION).definedBy("..presentation") .layer(UI).definedBy("..ui") .layer(DATA).definedBy("") .layer(DI).definedBy("..di") .whereLayer(DOMAIN).mayOnlyBeAccessedByLayers(DI, PRESENTATION, DATA) .whereLayer(PRESENTATION).mayOnlyBeAccessedByLayers(DI, UI) .whereLayer(UI).mayOnlyBeAccessedByLayers(DI) .whereLayer(DATA).mayOnlyBeAccessedByLayers(DI) .whereLayer(DI).mayNotBeAccessedByAnyLayer() </code></pre><p>How does it work? <span class="pre-inline">layeredArchitecture()</span> is a static method in the <span class="pre-inline">Architectures</span> class (again, please import it). First we need to actually define our layers: <span class="pre-inline">layer</span> declares the layer (the argument is simply any descriptive String constant) and <span class="pre-inline">definedBy</span> specifies a package by which the layer is, well, defined (you can use package notation which we’ve seen before; you can also use a more general predicate). Without <span class="pre-inline">withOptionalLayers(true)</span> call, ArchUnit will require that all layers exist, which in a multi-module project might not necessarily be true (some modules might for example contain only domain stuff).</p><p>This rather short test will have an enormous impact on your codebase—correctly managed dependencies are what prevents your project from becoming a giant mess of spaghetti code.</p><h2>Inner beauty</h2><p>We’ve sorted the layers and packages, but what about their content? Take for example the domain layer: Continuing our rather simplified example, we want only <span class="pre-inline">UseCase</span> classes and <span class="pre-inline">Repository</span> interfaces in there. Furthermore, we want for these classes to follow certain name conventions and to extend correct base classes.</p><p>We can express all these requirements by the following set of ArchUnit tests:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `domain layer should contain only specified classes` = classes().that().resideInAPackage("..domain..") .should().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("UseCase") .andShould().beTopLevelClasses() .orShould().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("Repository") .andShould().beInterfaces() @ArchTest val `classes named UseCase should extend correct base class` = classes().that().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("UseCase") .should().beAssignableTo( @ArchTest val `use case subclasses should have correct name` = classes().that().areAssignableTo( .should().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("UseCase") </code></pre><p>And as a bonus example for Android fans, you can, of course, be even more specific:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `no one should ever name fields like this anymore ;)` = noFields().should().haveNameMatching("m[A-Z]+.*") </code></pre><h2>Endless power</h2><p>We’ve seen only a smart part of the ArchUnit API, but there’s almost nothing that ArchUnit tests cannot handle. You can examine all Java constructs and their wildest combinations (but always be aware of Kotlin-Java interoperability details and test your tests), go explore!</p><p>Next time, we’ll take a look at some advanced features and configuration options.</p>#architecture;#jvm;#tdd;#android
Architecture tests with ArchUnit, pt. 3: Advanced stuff tests with ArchUnit, pt. 3: Advanced stuff<p>​​​ArchUnit has many tricks up to its sleeve. We’ve <a href="/Blog/Pages/arch-unit-2.aspx">already seen</a> how to check package structure, language elements such as classes, fields, and methods, and how to make sure your layered architecture is sound. But there’s more! Let’s take a look at some advanced conce​pts.</p><h2>Slicing and dicing</h2><p>As we’ve seen in the previous part of this series, ArchUnit makes it easy to test layers and their relationships. However, dividing your codebase only horizontally isn’t enough—in all but very tiny projects, you’d end up with huge layers containing too many unrelated classes. Thus we need to divide our code vertically as well, usually by user-facing features and project-specific or general-purpose libraries. Those features or libraries are often compilation units (e.g., Gradle modules), but that doesn’t need to concern us at this moment.</p> <img alt="Package and module structure" src="/Blog/PublishingImages/Articles/arch-unit-3-01.png" data-themekey="#" /> <p>So, if we have defined several vertical slices of our codebase, we would like to test their relationships as well. Horizontal layer tests work <em>across</em> all slices, so they won’t help us in this case, but ArchUnit has us covered with its high-level slices API:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `feature slices should not depend on each other` = slices().matching("com.example.myapp.feature.(*)..") .should().notDependOnEachOther() </code></pre><p>This is a good rule to have, as you usually want your features to be isolated from each other. How does it work?</p><p>First, we define the matcher which slices the codebase vertically: It takes package notation which we’ve seen in the previous rules. The matcher group denoted by parentheses specifies the actual slicing point as well as the slice’s name shown in error messages.</p><p>In this case, code units residing in the following example packages <em>and</em> their subpackages would constitute separate slices: <span class="pre-inline">com.example.myapp.feature.login</span>, <span class="pre-inline"></span> or <span class="pre-inline">com.example.myapp.feature.navigation</span>. </p> <img alt="Feature slices" src="/Blog/PublishingImages/Articles/arch-unit-3-02.png" data-themekey="#" /> <p>In contrast, writing <span class="pre-inline">matching("com.example.myapp.feature.(**)")</span>, then <span class="pre-inline">com.example.myapp.feature.login.model</span> and <span class="pre-inline"></span> would constitute <em>different</em> slices.</p> <img alt="Layer slices" src="/Blog/PublishingImages/Articles/arch-unit-3-03.png" data-themekey="#" /> <p>Be careful, as this distinction might be rather subtle!</p><p>As always when practicing TDD, you need to see your test fail for the right reason—in this case that means creating a temporary file that intentionally breaks the test and deleting it afterwards.</p><p>The rest of the rule is simple: After the usual <span class="pre-inline">should()</span> operator, we have only two options: <span class="pre-inline">notDependOnEachOther()</span> tests that, well, no slice depends on any other (unlike the layer dependency tests, these tests are bi-directional), whereas <span class="pre-inline">beFreeOfCycles()</span> allows dependencies between the slices, but only in one direction at most.</p><p>Generally speaking, it may be a good idea to run the <span class="pre-inline">beFreeOfCycles()</span> test on every slice (using one of the two test variants mentioned above) in your codebase, whereas some types of slices (typically libraries, but not features) may be permitted to depend on each other in one direction. </p><p>But what if your codebase isn’t structured in such a convenient way? For example, there might be no middle <span class="pre-inline">feature</span> package distinguishing features from libraries, or worse, the package structure may be completely inconsistent.</p><p>For such cases, ArchUnit contains handy <span class="pre-inline">SliceAssignment</span> interface which you can use to assign slices to classes in a completely arbitrary way:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest private val features = object : SliceAssignment { override fun getIdentifierOf(javaClass: JavaClass) = when { javaClass.packageName.startsWith("com.example.myapp.login") -> SliceIdentifier.of("feature-login")"map") -> SliceIdentifier.of("feature-map") /* ... whatever you need ... */ else -> SliceIdentifier.ignore() override fun getDescription() = "this will be added to the error message" } </code></pre><p>Strings given to <span class="pre-inline">SliceIdentifier</span> are arbitrary constants identifying the slice and are also shown in error messages.</p><p>There is an important difference in what you write in that <span class="pre-inline">else</span> branch: If you return <span class="pre-inline">SliceIdentifier.of("remaining")</span>, then all classes not matching the previous cases will be assigned to the <span class="pre-inline">"remaining"</span> slice (which means they will be tested against other slices), whereas if you return <span class="pre-inline">SliceIdentifier.ignore()</span>, those classes won’t participate in the test at all (both options have their uses, but be careful not to confuse them).</p><p>We can then use our slice assignment like this:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">slices().assignedFrom(features).should().notDependOnEachOther()</code></pre><h2>Why be in when you could be out?</h2><p>As we’ve learned, ArchUnit runs its tests on compiled bytecode. But where do these classes come from?</p><p>There is more than one way to specify that, but probably the most succinct is to use this annotation:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@RunWith(ArchUnitRunner::class) @AnalyzeClasses(packages = ["com.example.myapp"]) internal class MyArchTest </code></pre><p>Besides using String literals, we can specify packages with Classes or, if that’s not enough, completely customize the sources using ArchUnit’s <span class="pre-inline">LocationProvider</span>. In every case, please note that ArchUnit looks for packages within the current classpath and <em>all</em> classes must be imported for ArchUnit to be able to work correctly—if you import class <span class="pre-inline">X</span>, you need to import all its dependencies as well, transitively, otherwise ArchUnit will have only a limited amount of information to work with and the tests might yield false positives, giving you a false sense of security.</p><p>Now we have all the class locations that ArchUnit needs, but there are situations when we don’t necessarily need to test against all of the classes in there. We can filter the classes with <span class="pre-inline">importOptions</span>:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@RunWith(ArchUnitRunner::class) @AnalyzeClasses( packages = ["com.example.myapp"], importOptions = [ DoNotIncludeArchives::class, DoNotIncludeTests::class, DoNotIncludeAndroidGeneratedClasses::class ] ) internal class MyArchTest </code></pre><p>ArchUnit comes with a couple of handy predefined import options, such as the first two, or we can write our own, which is simple enough:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">internal class DoNotIncludeAndroidGeneratedFiles : ImportOption { companion object { private val pattern = Pattern.compile(".*/BuildConfig\\.class|.*/R(\\\$.*)?\\.class|.*Binding\\.class") } override fun includes(location: Location) = location.matches(pattern) } </code></pre><p>This import option rejects Android <span class="pre-inline">BuildConfig</span>, <span class="pre-inline">R</span>, and <span class="pre-inline">Binding</span> classes. The location argument passed here is platform-independent, so you don’t have to worry about path separators and such things.</p><p>But what if we need to be more granular? For example, sometimes we might need to ignore certain classes on a per-test basis, basically adding ad-hoc exceptions to our pristine rules, because, you know, the real world happens. This is a slippery slope, so don’t forget to document such situations, but it’s simple enough to do by adding <span class="pre-inline">or</span> clause to the rule:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">@ArchTest val `domain layer should contain only specified classes` = classes().that().resideInAPackage("..domain..") .should().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("Repository").andShould().beInterfaces() .orShould().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("Controller").andShould().beInterfaces() .orShould().haveSimpleNameEndingWith("UseCase") .orShould().be( .because("only repositories, controllers and use cases are permitted in domain and Data is special wrapper for results from those classes") </code></pre><p>Be specific as possible with your exceptions as you don’t want them to accidentally match more language elements than intended—here, using class literal instead of String is safe and future refactoring-proof.</p><p><span class="pre-inline">Because</span> clause allows you to add more detail to the default error message generated from the test case name. There is also <span class="pre-inline">`as`</span> clause (ArchUnit being written in Java, it accidentally overloads Kotlin’s keyword, so don’t forget to escape it or create an alias extension function with a Kotlin-friendly name) that allows you to completely override the error message.</p><h2>Godspeed</h2><p>Because ArchUnit does a lot under the hood (bytecode examination and cycle checks tend to be expensive, among other things), the tests themselves, although written using unit test infrastructure, seldom have the <em>speed</em> of normal unit tests. The speed penalty can be quite severe, so organize your test suites in a way that ArchUnit tests don’t slow you down when developing your code using the classic TDD cycle of red-green-refactor, which has to be always blazingly fast.</p><p>That said, all ArchUnit’s features working together allow us to express our architecture in a clean, succinct, and <em>executable</em> way, which is invaluable in larger projects. Consistency and clarity are virtues that may very well make the difference between a codebase that is easy to learn and maintain and one that becomes a big steaming pile of unreadable mess.</p>#architecture;#jvm;#tdd;#android
Architecture tests with ArchUnit, pt. 4: Extensions & Kotlin support tests with ArchUnit, pt. 4: Extensions & Kotlin support<p>​ArchUnit is <a href="/Blog/Pages/arch-unit-3.aspx">immensely capable on its own</a> and that's a great merit on its own, but it doesn’t stop there—ArchUnit’s power can be augmented by adding custom matchers, language elements, and even whole new concepts. In this post, we’ll look at how we can achieve that and then we’ll see if we can leverage these capabilities to support even Kotlin-exclusive language elements in ArchUnit tests (spoiler alert: yes, we can!). Ready?</p><h2>Shiny new things</h2><p>As we’ve mentioned several times, ArchUnit rules look like this:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">(no) LANGUAGE_ELEMENT that PREDICATE should (not) CONDITION</code></pre><p>As it turns out, by thoroughly following the open/closed principle, ArchUnit allows us to supply our own language elements, predicates and conditions. These can be simple aggregations of existing built-in predicates or conditions to facilitate reuse, or we can invent entirely new domain-specific concepts to utilize in our architecture tests. So how is it done?</p><p>To create a custom language element, predicate or condition, we need to extend <span class="pre-inline">AbstractClassesTransformer</span>, <span class="pre-inline">DescribedPredicate</span>, or <span class="pre-inline">ArchCondition</span> respectively. Each abstract base class takes one type argument—the language element it operates on (ArchUnit provides for example <span class="pre-inline">JavaClass</span>, <span class="pre-inline">JavaMember</span>, <span class="pre-inline">JavaField</span> or <span class="pre-inline">JavaCodeUnit</span> and we can even create our own; these are reflection-like models read from compiled bytecode). They also have one constructor argument, a String that is appended to the rule description in error messages.</p><p>The simplest one to implement is <span class="pre-inline">DescribedPredicate</span>—we need to override its <span class="pre-inline">apply</span> method which takes the examined language element and returns Boolean:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">val myPredicate = object : DescribedPredicate("rule description") { override fun apply(input: JavaClass): Boolean = // … }</code></pre><p><span class="pre-inline">ArchCondition</span> is slightly more involved, as its <span class="pre-inline">check</span> function takes the language element as well. In addition, it also takes <span class="pre-inline">ConditionEvents</span> collection, which is used to return the result of the evaluation, as this function doesn’t directly return anything: </p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">val myCondition = object : ArchCondition("condition description") { override fun check(item: JavaClass, events: ConditionEvents) { if (item.doesNotSatisfyMyCondition()) { events.add(SimpleConditionEvent.violated(item, "violation description")) } } }</code></pre><p><span class="pre-inline">AbstractClassesTransformer</span> has a <span class="pre-inline">doTransform</span> method which takes a collection of <span class="pre-inline">JavaClass</span>es and transforms it to another collection. Elements of the output collection can be <span class="pre-inline">JavaClass</span>es as well, different built-in types or even custom classes. The transformation may comprise any number of operations including mapping or filtering:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">val myTransformer = object : AbstractClassesTransformer("items description") { override fun doTransform(collection: JavaClasses): Iterable = collection.filter { /* ... */ }.map { /* ... */ } }</code></pre><p>Anyway, we can use our custom transformers, predicates, and conditions like this:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">all(encryptedRepositories) .that(handleGdprData) .should(useSufficientlyStrongCrypthographicAlgorithms)</code></pre><p>and they can, of course, be combined with the built-in ones.</p><p>Besides promoting reuse, custom transformers, predicates, and conditions are particularly good at increasing the level of abstraction of your tests—it’s better to describe your system using its domain language instead of low-level, opaque technical terms.</p><h2>Gimme some Kotlin lovin’</h2><p>As promised, now it’s the time to tackle the last thing we’d like to have in ArchUnit tests—Kotlin support.</p><p>Because ArchUnit reads compiled bytecode and Kotlin has killer Java interoperability, we can get pretty far out of the box, but we still can’t directly test for Kotlin stuff like sealed and data classes, objects, typealiases, suspending functions etc. To find out how that could be possible, we need to take a slight detour first.</p><p>When targeting JVM (or Android), Kotlin compiler outputs JVM bytecode. Adding custom bytecodes for Kotlin-exclusive constructs is of course out of the question, so the compiler must resort to clever tricks to convert Kotlin stuff to vanilla JVM bytecode. Now, there’s some wiggle room (JVM bytecode allows some things that Java as a language doesn’t), but still, to achieve Kotlin’s stellar level of Java interoperability, the compiler must mostly play by Java’s rules.</p><p>To achieve that, for example, Kotlin compiler generates getters, setters and backing fields for properties. It also creates encapsulating classes for top level functions and properties, adds new functions to existing classes (to support data classes) or adds parameters to existing functions (this is one of the tricks behind suspending functions).</p><p>As a result, when examining the bytecode alone, those Kotlin concepts effectively disappear. But for Kotlin compiler to be able to compile Kotlin code against another <em>already compiled</em> Kotlin code (and to see it as Kotlin code, not generic JVM code), this information must be preserved somewhere.</p><p>Take for example this simple data class:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">data class Money(val amount: BigDecimal, val currency: Currency)</code></pre><p>IntelliJ Idea/Android Studio lets us see bytecode generated from this Kotlin code, which in turn can be (in most cases) decompiled to equivalent Java code. If we do that with the <span class="pre-inline">Money</span> class, we’ll see something like this:</p><pre><code class="java hljs">@Metadata( mv = {1, 1, 16}, bv = {1, 0, 3}, k = 1, d1 = {"\u0000,\n\u0002\u0018\u0002\n\ /* rest omitted */ }, d2 = {"Lcom/example/myapp/Money;", "", "amount", "Ljava/math/BigDecimal;", "currency", "Ljava/util/Currency;", "(Ljava/math/BigDecimal;Ljava/util/Currency;)V", "getAmount", "()Ljava/math/BigDecimal;", "getCurrency", "()Ljava/util/Currency;", "component1", "component2", "copy", "equals", "", "other", "hashCode", "", "toString", "", "app-main"} ) public final class Money { @NotNull private final BigDecimal amount; @NotNull private final Currency currency; @NotNull public final BigDecimal getAmount() { return this.amount; } @NotNull public final Currency getCurrency() { return this.currency; } /* rest omitted */</code></pre><p>Bingo! The Java part is pretty straightforward, but it looks like that strange <span class="pre-inline">@Metadata</span> stuff might be what we need. Indeed, the documentation for <span class="pre-inline">@Metadata</span> says that “This annotation is present on any class file produced by the Kotlin compiler and is read by the compiler and reflection.” Its arguments contain various interesting Kotlin-exclusive bits and pieces related to the class and because it has runtime retention, it will be stored in binary files, which means we can read them from our ArchUnit tests! If only we could make sense of that gibberish inside the annotation…</p><h2>Metadata dissection</h2><p>It turns out that we can! There’s a small official library to do just that.</p><p>First, add JVM metadata library to your build script:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">dependencies { testImplementation("org.jetbrains.kotlinx:kotlinx-metadata-jvm:0.1.0") }</code></pre><p>Then, our plan of attack is this:</p><ol><li>The starting point is the input of our custom transformer, predicate, or condition, which in this case will be ArchUnit’s <span class="pre-inline">JavaClass</span> object. </li><li>ArchUnit can read annotations on the <span class="pre-inline">JavaClass</span> object, so we examine if Kotlin’s <span class="pre-inline">@Metadata</span> annotation is present. </li><li>If it is, we use the <a href="">kotlinx-metadata</a> library to read the actual metadata. (KotlinPoet has a <a href="">higher-level API</a> based on kotlinx-metadata, which presumably might be a little bit nicer to use; we’ll just use the basic API here, as the end result will be the same in either case.) </li><li>We expose the data in some easily digestible object so we can write simple and readable assertions about it. </li></ol><p>To make an already long story short, here is the first piece of the puzzle—transformation from ArchUnit’s <span class="pre-inline">JavaClass</span> to kotlinx-metadata <span class="pre-inline">KmClass</span> model:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">private fun JavaClass.toKmClass(): KmClass? = this .takeIf { it.isAnnotatedWith( } ?.getAnnotationOfType( ?.let { metadata -> KotlinClassHeader( kind = metadata.kind, metadataVersion = metadata.metadataVersion, bytecodeVersion = metadata.bytecodeVersion, data1 = metadata.data1, data2 = metadata.data2, extraString = metadata.extraString, packageName = metadata.packageName, extraInt = metadata.extraInt ) ) } ?.let { (it as? KotlinClassMetadata.Class)?.toKmClass() }</code></pre><p>If a given <span class="pre-inline">JavaClass</span> is annotated with <span class="pre-inline">@Metadata</span>, this extension reads the annotation and converts it to a  <span class="pre-inline">KotlinClassMetadata</span> object (mapping the annotation attributes to the corresponding properties of <span class="pre-inline">KotlinClassHeader</span> along the way). </p><p><span class="pre-inline">KotlinClassMetadata</span> is a sealed class and its subclasses represent various different kinds of classes generated by the Kotlin compiler. There are a few of them, but to keep things simple we are interested only in “real” classes (<span class="pre-inline">KotlinClassMetadata.Class</span>) from which we finally extract the rich <span class="pre-inline">KmClass</span> model (and return null in all other cases).</p><p>To make our life easier later, we also add this handy extension:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">private fun JavaClass.isKotlinClassAndSatisfies(predicate: (KmClass) -> Boolean): Boolean = this.toKmClass()?.let { predicate(it) } == true</code></pre><h2>Grand finale</h2><p>Now we can finally write our transformers, predicates, and conditions. Because they will be all quite similar, let’s create factory methods for them first:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">fun kotlinClassesTransformer(description: String, predicate: (KmClass) -> Boolean) = object : AbstractClassesTransformer(description) { override fun doTransform(collection: JavaClasses): Iterable = collection.filter { it.isKotlinClassAndSatisfies(predicate) } }</code></pre><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">fun kotlinDescribedPredicate(description: String, predicate: (KmClass) -> Boolean) = object : DescribedPredicate(description) { override fun apply(javaClass: JavaClass) = javaClass.isKotlinClassAndSatisfies(predicate) }</code></pre><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">fun kotlinArchCondition( ruleDescription: String, violationDescription: String, predicate: (KmClass) -> Boolean ) = object : ArchCondition(ruleDescription) { override fun check(javaClass: JavaClass, events: ConditionEvents) { if (!javaClass.isKotlinClassAndSatisfies(predicate)) { events.add(SimpleConditionEvent.violated(javaClass, "$javaClass $violationDescription")) } } }</code></pre><p>And now, finally, we have everything ready to write things we can actually use in our ArchUnit tests—for example:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">val kotlinSealedClasses = kotlinClassesTransformer("Kotlin sealed classes") { it.sealedSubclasses.isNotEmpty() }</code></pre><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">val areKotlinDataClasses = kotlinDescribedPredicate("are Kotlin data classes") { Flag.Class.IS_DATA(it.flags) }</code></pre><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">val beKotlinObjects = kotlinArchCondition("be Kotlin objects", "is not Kotlin object") { Flag.Class.IS_OBJECT(it.flags) }</code></pre><p>The predicate lambdas operate on <span class="pre-inline">KmClass</span> instances. <span class="pre-inline">KmClass</span> is quite a low-level but powerful API to examine <span class="pre-inline">@Metadata</span> annotation content. <span class="pre-inline">KmClass</span> has direct methods or properties for some Kotlin constructs, while others can be derived from its flags. Sometimes it takes a little bit of exploration, but all Kotlin-specific stuff is there. Or, for a higher-level API to do the same, see <a href="">KotlinPoet metadata</a>.</p><p>Now we can write tests such as:</p><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">all(kotlinSealedClasses) .that(resideInAPackage("..presentation")) .should(haveSimpleNameEndingWith("State"))</code></pre><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">classes() .that(resideInAPackage("..model")).and(areKotlinDataClasses) .should(implement(</code></pre><pre><code class="kotlin hljs">classes() .that().areTopLevelClasses().and().areAssignableTo( .should(beKotlinObjects)</code></pre><p>So there you have it—support for Kotlin constructs in ArchUnit. The sky’s the limit, now your codebase can be more robust than ever! </p><h2>Conclusion</h2><p>Well, this was quite a journey! The benefits of having even a small suite of ArchUnit tests in your project are immense—they prevent subtle, hard-to-catch bugs, act as the best possible documentation of your architecture, save you time during code reviews and keep your codebase clean, consistent, maintainable and healthy. They are easy to write, simple to integrate into your CI/CD pipeline and extendable even beyond the original language. What’s not to like? Start writing them now and reap the rewards for years to come!</p>#architecture;#jvm;#tdd;#android;#kotlin
Truce with fragments with fragments<p>​​​Once upon a time, one could write an entire Android app in a single humongous activity. Google provided us with a bunch of fairly low-level building blocks and basically no guidance on how to use them together in a maintainable and scalable way. (“So you want to build a house? Here is a shovel, a saxophone and a kitten, we thought they might be useful, but do absolutely what you want with them, go on! And please mind the lifecycles, thank you.”)</p><p>Fortunately, things have changed a bit and now the official docs mention stuff like view models, lifecycle observers, navigation graphs, repositories or single-activity applications. And there are even official <em>opinions</em> on how to combine them!</p><p>Nevertheless, activities and fragments, the remnants of those dark times, are apparently here to stay. When you look at API surfaces of these... <em>things</em>, one question surely comes to mind: How do I work with that and stay sane at the same time?</p><h2>A match made in a place other than heaven</h2><p>Before we get to that, a little disclaimer is needed: This article is very opinionated. Your mileage and needs may vary. The following recommendations are best suited to “ordinary” form-based apps containing quite a lot of screens and user flows, with modest performance requirements. Games, specialized single-purpose apps, apps with dynamic plug-ins, high-performance, or UI-less apps might benefit from completely different approaches.</p><p>With that out of the way, the first question we should ask is: Do we even <em>need</em> activities and fragments?</p><p>With activities being the entry points to the app's UI, the answer is obviously yes. There’s no way around the fact that we need at least one activity with <span class="pre-inline">android.intent.action.MAIN</span> and <span class="pre-inline">android.intent.category.LAUNCHER</span> in its intent filter. But do we need <em>more</em> than one? The answer to that is a resounding no and we’ll see why in a future post.</p><p>Fragments are a different matter. First introduced in Android 3.0, when tablets were a thing, they were hastily put together as a kind of reusable mini-activities so that larger tablet layouts could display several of them simultaneously (think master-detail flows and such). Unfortunately, they inherited many design flaws of activities and even added some very interesting new ones. To say they are controversial would be an understatement.</p><p>On top of that, we don’t really need them in the way that we need that one launcher activity. Bigger, reusable pieces of UI can be served using good old views and there are 3rd party frameworks that do just that (and even several others that achieve the same thing in other ways, like using RecyclerViews to compose the UI from different “cells” etc.); and don't even forget that Jetpack Compose is coming...<br></p><p>However! Fragments are still developed, supported, documented, advocated for, integrated with other highly useful libraries (like Jetpack’s Navigation component) and in some places, they’re quite irreplaceable (yes, this is more of a design flaw of such APIs, but we need to work with what we have). Love them or hate them, they are the standard, well-known official solution, so let’s just be pragmatic: We’ll give them a hand, but won’t let them take the whole arm.</p><p>And so, we’ve arrived at the second question: One activity and possibly many fragments—but what can we use them <em>for</em>? And if we can, <em>should</em> we?</p><h2>Less is more</h2><p>This is where the opinions begin, so brace yourself.</p><p>Architecture-wise, what is an activity (and to an extent, a fragment, since they share many similarities)? My answer is this: A textbook violation of the single responsibility principle. </p><p>The main problem with an activity/fragment is that it is:</p><ol><li>a giant callback for dozens of unrelated subsystems</li><li>which is created and destroyed outside of our control</li><li>and we cannot safely pass around or store references to it.</li></ol><p>Typical consequences of these issues (when not handled in a sensible way) include activity subclasses several thousand lines long, full of untestable spaghetti (1), UI glitches and crashes (2) and memory leaks (3).</p><p>Open any activity in your current project, type <span class="pre-inline">this.</span> and marvel at the endless list of methods. The humble activity handles UI lifecycle and components, view models, data and cache directories, action bars and menus, assets and resources, theming, permissions, windows and picture-in-picture, navigation and transitions, IPC, databases and much, much more.</p><p>How Android got to this point isn’t important right now, but your code doesn’t have to suffer the same bloated fate. We need to chip away at the responsibilities and one way to do that is this: Use fragments exclusively for UI duties and that single activity for system call(back)s (and absolutely no UI).</p><h2>Fragments of imagination</h2><p>Each fragment should represent one screen (or a significant part of one) of your application. A fragment should only be responsible for </p><ol><li>rendering the view model state to the UI and</li><li>listening for UI events and sending them to its view model.</li></ol><p>That’s all. Nothing more. Really.</p><p>View model states should be tailored to concrete UI, should be observable and idempotent. It’s alright for view models and fragments to be quite tightly coupled (but view models mustn’t know anything about the fragments).</p><p>Because fragments are much harder to test than view models, the view model should pre-format the displayed data as much as possible, so the fragment can be kept extremely simple and just directly assign state properties to its view properties. There shouldn’t be any traces of formatting or any other logic in the fragments.</p><p>The opposite way should be equally simple—the fragment just attaches listeners to its views (our current favorite is the <a href="">Corbind</a> library which transforms Android callbacks to handy and most importantly unified <span class="pre-inline">Flow</span>s) and sends these events directly to the view model.</p><p>That is what fragments should do. But what they shouldn’t do is perhaps even more important:</p><ul><li>Fragments shouldn’t handle navigation between screens, permissions nor any other system stuff, even if the APIs are conveniently accessible from right inside the fragment. </li><li>Fragments shouldn’t know about each other and shouldn’t depend on or interact with their parent activity. </li><li>Fragments shouldn’t know about how they are instantiated and how they are injected (if your DI framework allows this); they also shouldn’t know about fragment transactions, if possible. </li><li>Data should be passed to fragments <em>exclusively</em> through their view models and that should be just the data to be displayed in the UI—forget about fragment arguments and rich domain models in them. </li><li>This almost goes without saying, but fragments shouldn’t do any file, database or network IO (I know, inside the fragment, the almighty Context is sooooo close… Just a small peak into SharedPrefs, please? No, never!). </li><li>Since Android view models got <span class="pre-inline">SavedStateHandle</span>, fragments even shouldn’t persist their state to handle process death. </li><li>And for heaven’s sake, never ever use abominations such as headless or retained fragments. </li></ul><p>Some other tips include:</p><ul><li>Fragments should handle only the very basic lifecycle callbacks like <span class="pre-inline">onCreate</span>/<span class="pre-inline">onDestroy</span>, <span class="pre-inline">onViewCreated</span>/<span class="pre-inline">onDestroyView</span>, <span class="pre-inline">onStart</span>/<span class="pre-inline">onStop</span> and <span class="pre-inline">onPause</span>/<span class="pre-inline">onResume</span>. If you need the more mysterious ones, you’re probably going to shoot yourself in the foot in the near future. </li><li>If possible, don’t use the original <span class="pre-inline">ViewPager</span> with fragments—that road leads to madness and memory leaks. There's a safer and more convenient <span class="pre-inline">ViewPager2</span> which works much like <span class="pre-inline">RecyclerView</span>. </li><li>Make dialogs with <span class="pre-inline">DialogFragments</span> <em>integrated with Jetpack Navigation component</em>. It’s much easier to handle their lifecycle (those dismissed dialogs popping on the screen again after device rotation, anyone?) and they can have their own view models. This way, there’s almost no difference between part of your UI being a dialog or a whole screen. </li><li>Sometimes it’s OK for fragments to include other fragments (e.g., a screen containing a <span class="pre-inline">MapFragment</span>), but keep them separate—no direct dependencies and communication between them, no shared view models etc. </li><li>To make your life easier, your project probably has some sort of <span class="pre-inline">BaseFragment</span> which simplifies plumbing, sets up scopes, and what have you. That’s fine, but resist the temptation to pollute it with some “handy” little methods for random things like toasts, snackbars, toolbar handling etc. YAGNI! Don’t misuse inheritance as a means to share implementation—that’s what composition is for. </li><li>Our favorite way to access views from fragments is the relatively new and lovely ViewBinding library. It’s simple to integrate, straightforward to use, convenient, type-safe, and greatly reduces boilerplate. No other solution (findViewById, Butter Knife, kotlin-android-extensions plugin or Data Binding library) possesses all these qualities. </li><li>Speaking of Data Binding, even when it isn’t throwing a wrench into your build, we don’t think that making our XMLs smarter than they need to be is a good idea to begin with. And don’t let me start about the testability of such implementations. </li><li>Use <a href="">LeakCanary</a>! The recent versions require practically no setup and automatically watch Activity, Fragment, View and ViewModel instances out of the box. </li></ul><p>After following all this advice (and a little bit of coding), your <em>complete</em> fragment could look like this (the implementation details aren’t important, just look at the amount and <em>intention</em> of the code):</p><pre> <code class="kotlin hljs">internal class ItemDetailFragment : BaseFragment<ImteDetailViewModel, ItemDetailViewModel.State, ItemDetailFragmentBinding>() { // take advantage of reduced visibility if possible so you don’t pollute your project’s global scope // required by DI framework override val viewModelClass = ItemDetailViewModel::class // layout inflation with the lovely ViewBinding library override fun onCreateViewBinding(inflater: LayoutInflater) = ItemDetailFragmentBinding.inflate(inflater) // initialization of view properties that cannot be set in XML override fun ItemDetailFragmentBinding.onInitializeViews() { detailContainer.layoutTransition?.disableTransitionType(DISAPPEARING) } // render the view model state in the UI; kept as simple as possible // state properties should preferably be primitive or primitive-like types // no DataBinding :) // notice the receiver - we don’t have to reference the binding on every single line override fun ItemDetailFragmentBinding.onBindState(state: ItemDetailViewModel.State) { loading.isVisible = state.isLoadingVisible itemTitle.text = state.item.title itemCategory.textResId = state.item.categoryResId itemFavorite.isChecked = state.item.isFavorite itemPrice = state.item.price // price is a String and is already properly formatted /* ... */ } // the other way around: catch UI events and send them to the view model override fun ItemDetailFragmentBinding.onBindViews() { toolbar.navigationClicks().collect { viewModel.onBack() } { viewModel.onCheckout() } favorite.checkedChanges().collect { isChecked -> viewModel.setFavorite(isChecked) } addToWishList.clicks().collect { viewModel.onAddToWishList() } addToCart.clicks().collect { viewModel.onAddToCart() } /* ... */ } } </code></pre><p>That’s not that bad, is it?</p><h2>If you can’t beat them, join them</h2><p>Although hardly an elegant or easy-to-use API, fragments are here to stay. Let’s make the best of this situation: Pragmatically utilize them for their useful integrations and focus on the single real responsibility they have—handling the UI. Ignore the rest and KISS—this principle is extremely important when working with fragments. That way, you’re going to have small, simple, focused fragments—and more importantly, a lot less less headaches.</p>#architecture;#android;#jetpack